Exploring Relationships Between Field (In)dependence, Multiple Intelligences, and L2 Reading Performance Among Iranian L2 Learners

Document Type: Research Article


Shahrekord University


L2 learners’ individual differences are crucial factors that deserve attention in L2 education. Focusing on 2 main areas of individual differences (i.e., field (in)dependence and multiple intelligences), this study explored their relationships with L2 reading performance. Participants were 64 TEFL undergraduates and postgraduates. To assess the participats’ degree of field (in)dependence and multiple intelligences profiles, GEFT (Witkin, Oltman, Raskin, & Karp, 1971) and McKenzie’s Multiple Intelligences Inventory (1999) were administered, respectively, and their L2 reading performance was assessed through a task-based reading test (Salmani-Nodoushan, 2003), which measures performance on 5 reading tasks of true-false, sentence completion, outlining, elicitation of writer’s views, and scanning. Data were quantitatively analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlation. Results revealed significant positive relationships between field independence and performance on the 4 reading tasks of true-false, sentence completion, outlining, and scanning. Moreover, intrapersonal intelligence was found to correlate significantly and positively with the scanning performance.


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