Impact of Metacognitive Awareness on Self-Assessment Skills of Lower-Intermediate Level EFL Students

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

Payame Noor University

Abstract

This study focuses on the relationship between lower-intermediate level EFL learners’ metacognitive awareness and accuracy in self-assessment of a speaking test. We tried to raise the learners’ metacognitive awareness through practice in goal-setting and planning. To do so, 103 lower-intermediate level students took a pretest of speaking, completed a metacognitive awareness questionnaire, and had an immediate recall interview. Next, they were divided into 2 groups and attended a course in which the students in 1 group received goal-setting and planning treatments. After administration of the posttests, the findings revealed that the goal-setting and planning treatment led the learners to gain higher levels of metacognitive awareness, t(101) = 2.45, p =. 019, and this increased awareness could increase their accuracy in self-assessment. Such findings indicate that presenting the objectives of different tasks to learners and goal-setting can be applied in language learning classes to enhance their awareness and improve their self-assessment skills.

Keywords


Alexander, P. A., Schallert, D. L., & Hare, V. C. (1991). Coming to terms: How researchers in learning and literacy talk about knowledge. Review of Educational Research, 61, 315-343.

AlFallay, I. (2004). The role of some selected psychological and personality traits of the rater in the accuracy of self- and peer-assessment. System, 32, 407-425.

Andrade, H., Du, Y., & Wang, X. (2008).Putting rubrics to the test: The effect of a model, criteria generation, and rubric-referenced self-assessment on elementary school students' writing. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 27,  3-13.

Bachman, L. F. (1990). Fundamental considerations in language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Benson, P., & Lor, W. (1999). Conceptions of language and language learning. System, 27, 459-472.

Brown, H. D. (2004). Language assessment: Principles and classroom practices. White Plains, New York: Pearson Education.

Brown, J. D., & Hudson, T. (1998). The alternatives in language assessment. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 653-675.

Cohen, A. D. (1998). Strategies and processes in test taking and SLA. In L.F. Bachman & A. D. Cohen (Eds.), Interface between second language acquisition and language testing research (pp. 90-111). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Cotterall, S. (1995). Readiness for autonomy: Investigating learner beliefs. System, 23, 195-205.

Coutinho, S. A. (2007). The relationship between goals, metacognition, and academic success. Educate, 7, 39-47.

Dörnyei, Z., & Skehan, P. (2003). Individual differences in second language learning. In C. Doughty & M. Long (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 589-630). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Feuerstein, R. (1980). Instrumental enrichment: An intervention program for cognitive modifiability. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press.

Goh, C. (1997). Metacognitive awareness and second language listeners. ELT Journal, 51, 361-369.

Goh, C. (2008). Metacognitive instruction for second language listening development: Theory, practice and research implications. RELC Journal, 39, 188-213.

Goh, C., & Taib, Y. (2006). Metacognitive instruction in listening for young learners. ELT Journal, 60, 222-232.

Hamman, L. A., & Steven, R. J. (1998). Metacognitive awareness assessment in self-regulated learning and performance measures in an introductory educational psychology course. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association.

Harris, M. (1997). Self-assessment of language learning in formal settings. ELT Journal, 51, 12-20.

Heilenman, L. K. (1990). Self-assessment of second language ability: The role of response effects. Language Testing, 7, 174-201.

Huerta-Macías, A. (2002). Alternative assessment: Responses to commonly asked questions. In J. C. Richards & W. A. Renandya (Eds.), Methodology in language teaching: Anthology of current practice (pp. 338-343). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kato, F. (2009). Student preferences: Goal-setting and self-assessment activities in a tertiary education environment. Language Teaching Research, 13, 177-199.

Kondo-Brown, K. (2005). Differences in language skills: Heritage language learner subgroups and foreign language learners. The Modern Language Journal, 89, 563-581.

LeBlanc, R., & Painchaud, G. (1985). Self-assessment as an L2 placement instrument. TESOL Quarterly, 19, 26-40.

Malabonga, V., Kenyon, D. M., & Carpenter, H. (2005). Self-assessment, preparation and response time on a computerized oral proficiency test. Language Testing, 22, 59-92.

McNamara, T. (2000). Language testing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mori, Y., Sato, K., & Shimizu, H. (2007).Japanese language students’ perceptions on Kanjilearning and their relationship to novel Kanjiword learning ability. Language Learning, 57, 57-85.

Oscarson, M. (1989). Self-assessment of language proficiency: Rationale and applications. Language Testing, 6, 1-13.

Patri, M. (2002). The influence of peer feedback on self and peer-assessment of oral skills. Language Testing, 19, 109-131.

Pounder, J. S. (2000). A behaviourally anchored rating scales approach to institutional self-assessment in higher education. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 25, 171-182.

Rivers, W. P. (2001). Autonomy at all costs: An ethnography of metacognitive self-assessment and self-management among experienced language learners. The Modern Language Journal, 85, 279-290.

Ross, S. (1998). Self-assessment in second language testing: a meta-analysis andanalysis of experiential factors. Language Testing, 15, 1-20.

Sakui, K., & Gaies, S. J. (1999). Investigating Japanese learners’ beliefs about language learning. System, 27, 473-492.

Schneider, E. & Ganschow, L. (2000). Dynamic assessment and instructional strategies for learners who struggle to learn a foreign language. Dyslexia, 6,72-82.

Schraw, G., & Dennison, R. S. (1994) Assessing metacognitive awareness. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 19, 460-475.

Spence-Brown, R. (2001). The eye of the beholder: Authenticity in an embedded assessment task. Language Testing, 18, 463-481.

Spolsky, B. (1985). The limits of authenticity in language testing. Language Testing, 2, 31-40.

Sullivan, K., & Hall, C. (1997). Introducing students to self-assessment. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 22, 289-306.

Sullivan, K., & Lindgren, E. (2002). Self-assessment in autonomous computer-aided second language writing. ELT Journal, 56, 258-266.

Ulicsak, M. H. (2004). “How did it know we weren'’ talking?”: An investigation into the impact of self-assessments and feedback in a group activity. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 205-211.

Vandergrift, L. (1999). Facilitating second language listening comprehension: Acquiring successful strategies. ELT Journal, 53, 168-176.

Vandergrift, L. (2005). Relationships among motivation orientations, Metacognitive awareness and proficiency in L2 listening. Applied Linguistics, 26, 70-89.

Vandergrift, L., & Tafaghodtari, M. (2010). Teaching L2 learners how to listen does make a difference: An empirical study. Language Learning, 60, 470-497.

Victori, M., & Lockhart, W. (1995). Enhancing metacognition in self-directed language learning. System, 23, 223-234.

Wenden, A. (1998). Metacognitive knowledge and language learning. Applied Linguistics, 19, 515-37.

Yang, N. (1999). The relationship between EFL learners’ beliefs and learning strategy use. System, 27, 515-535.