A Comparative Study of Effects of Input-Based, Meaning-Based Output, and Traditional Instructions on EFL Learners’ Grammar Learning

Document Type: Research Article


1 Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Islamic Azad University

2 Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University


This quasi-experimental study examined the effects of input-based, meaning-based output (MO) and traditional instruction (TI) on EFL learners’ grammar learning. To this end, 120 junior high school students were selected from 4 intact classes. Each class was assigned to an instructional condition, that is, textual enhancement (TE), input flood (IF), MO, and TI. Before the treatment, a multiple-choice grammar test (MCGT) and a written production test (WPT) were administered to assess the participants’ knowledge of the L2 structures (i.e., past simple and future simple tense). One week after the last treatment session, the MCGT and WPT were administered again. Scores were analyzed through one-way ANCOVA and Fisher’s LSD post-hoc tests. Results revealed that the participants in the input-based instruction groups (TE and IF) outperformed those in the MO and TI groups. Implications arising from these findings are also explained.


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