Appraisal Theory in Translation Studies: An Introduction and Review of Studies of Evaluation in Translation

Document Type: Research Article

Authors

Translation Studies Department, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Translation studies (TS), as a young (inter)discipline, has partly relied on metadiscussions, critical assessments of its literature, and compilation of bibliographies to deal with certain problems of its youth, such as polarity and fragmentation. While the current status of TS shows general maturity, there are still young areas of inquiry in the discipline that are faced with similar issues. The current study is an attempt to introduce and bring together an area of research in TS that draws on appraisal theory (AT; Martin & White, 2005) to functionally and systematically study the expression of feelings, emotions, viewpoints, and intersubjective positioning in translation. It is argued that this body of research has not received enough attention, partly due to its fragmentation and diversity. Several appraisal theory-informed studies of translations in different languages, genres, and mediums are introduced and reviewed, and certain points of similarity and differences are highlighted. More elaborate methodologies are given a closer look, and a general view of the findings in the literature is also provided. Finally, suggestions are made to address some limitations in the literature.

Keywords


Abbamonte, L., & Cavaliere, F. (2006). Lost in translation: The Italian rendering of UNICEF “The State of the World’s Children 2004” report. In M. Gotti & S. Šarčević (Eds.), Insights into specialized translation (pp. 235-258). Berg: Peter Lang.

Al-Shunnag, M. (2014). Stance in political discourse: Arabic translations of American newspaper opinion articles on the ‘Arab Spring.’ Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Salford.

Arjani, S. H. (2011). Attitudinal markers in translations of M.A. and Ph.D. dissertation abstracts. Unpublished master’s thesis, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran.

Arjani, S. H. (2012). Attitudinal markers in translations of dissertation abstracts in social and natural sciences. Translation Studies Quarterly, ‌36, 9-26.

Baker, M. (1992). In other words: A coursebook on translation. London: Routledge.

Baker, M. (2006). Translation and conflict: A narrative account. London: Routledge.

Baker, M. (2014). Translation as renarration. In J. House (Ed.), Translation: A multidisciplinary approach (pp. 158-177). UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bassnett, S. (1998). The cultural turn in translation studies. In S. Bassnett & A. Lefevere (Eds.), Constructing cultures: Essays on literary translation (pp. 123-140). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Bassnett, S., & Lefevere, A. (Eds.). (1990). Translation, history, and culture. London: Pinter.

Bednarek, M. (2006). Evaluation in media discourse: Analysis of a newspaper corpus. New York: Continuum.

Bednarek, M. (2015). Bibliography of appraisal, stance, and evaluation. Retrieved October 3, 2015, from the World Wide Web: http://www.monikabednarek.com/downloads

Biber, D. (2006). University language: A corpus-based study of spoken and written registers. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Biber, D., & Finegan, E. (1988). Adverbial stance types in English. Discourse Processes, 11(1), 1-34.

Catford, J. C. (1965). A linguistic theory of translation: An essay in applied linguistics. London: Oxford University Press.

Chen, Y.-M. (2011). The ideological construction of solidarity in translated newspaper commentaries: Context models and intersubjective positioning. Discourse & Society, 22(6), 693-722.

Chesterman, A. (2007). Similarity analysis and the translation profile. Belgian Journal of Linguistics, ‌21, 53-66.

Chesterman, A. (2009). The name and nature of translator studies. Hermes—Journal of Language and Communication Studies, ‌42, 13-22.

Chilton, P. (2004). Analysing political discourse: Theory and practice. Abingdon: Routledge.

Delabastita, D. (2005). Research in translation between paralysis and pretence. Revista Canaria ‌de Estudios Ingleses, ‌51, 33-49.

Fairclough, N. (1992). Discourse and social change. Cambridge: Polity Presa.

Fairclough, N. (1995). Discourse representation in media discourse. In N. Fairclough (Ed.), Critical discourse analysis: The critical study of language (pp. 54-69). London: Longman.

Fairclough, N. (1998). Political discourse in the media: An analytical framework. In B. Allan & P. Garrett (Eds.), Approaches to media discourse. Oxford: Blackwell.

Greenall, A. K. (2013). Evaluation in translation: critical points of translator decision-making [Review]. Perspectives, 21(4), 614-616.

Halliday, M. A. K., & Matthiessen, C. (2014). Halliday’s introduction to functional grammar (4th ed.). London: Routledge.

Hatim, B., & Mason, I. (1990). Discourse and the translator. London and New York: Longman.

Hatim, B., & Mason, I. (1997). The translator as ‌communicator. London: Routledge.

Hermans, T. (Ed.). (1985/2014). The manipulation of literature: Studies in literary translation. New York: Routledge.

Holland, R. (2013). News translation. In C. Millán & F. Bartrina (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of translation studies (pp. 332-346). London: Routledge.

Hood, S. (2010). Appraising research: Evaluation in academic writing. London: Palgrave Macmillan.

House, J. (1997). Translation quality assessment: A model revisited. Tübingen: Narr.

Leech, G. N., & Short, M. H. (1981). Style in fiction. A linguistic introduction to English fictional prose. London: Longman.

Lefer, M.-A., & Grabar, N. (2015). Super-creative and overbureaucratic: A cross-genre corpus-based study on the use and translation of evaluative prefixation in TED talks and EU parliamentary debates. Across Languages and Cultures, 16(2), 187-208.

Lefevere, A. (1993). Discourses on translation: Recent, less recent, and to come. Target, 5(2), 229-241.

Lu, G.-H., & Chen, Y.-M. (2011). The mediation of reader involvement in soft news transediting. Translation & Interpreting, 3(2), 48-66.

Martin, J. R. (2017). The discourse semantics of attitudinal relations: Continuing the study of lexis. Russian Journal of Linguistics, 21(1), 22-47.

Martin, J. R., & Rose, D. (2003/2007). Working with discourse: Meaning beyond the clause (2nd ed.). London: Continuum.

Martin, J. R., & White, P. R. R. (2005). The language of evaluation: Appraisal in English. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Mouka, E., Saridakis, I. E., & Fotopoulou, A. (2015). Racism goes to the movies: A corpus-driven study of cross-linguistic racist discourse annotation and translation analysis. In C. Fantinuoli & F. Zanettin (Eds.), New directions in corpus-based translation studies (pp. 35-70). Berlin: Language Science Press.

Munday, J. (2009). The concept of the interpersonal in translation. SYNAPS, 23, 15-27.

Munday, J. (2010). Evaluation and intervention in translation. In M. Baker, M. Olohan, & M. Calzada (Eds.), Text and context: Essays on translation and interpreting in honour of Ian Mason (pp. 77-94). Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing.

Munday, J. (2012a). Evaluation in translation: Critical points of translator decision-making. London: Routledge.

Munday, J. (2012b). The expression of attitude in translation. Revista Canaria ‌de Estudios Ingleses, ‌65, 101-114.

Munday, J. (2012c). New directions in discourse analysis for translation: A study of decision-making in crowdsourced subtitles of Obama’s 2012 State of the Union speech. Language and Intercultural Communication, 12(4), 321-334.

Munday, J. (2015). Engagement and graduation resources as markers of translator/interpreter positioning. Target, 27(3), 406-421.

Pan, L. (2012). Stance mediation in news translation: A case study of sensitive discourse on China 2008. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Macau.

Pan, L. (2014). Mediation in news translation: A critical analytical framework. In D. Abend-David (Ed.), Media and translation: An interdisciplinary approach (pp. 246-265). New York: Continuum.

Pan, L. (2015). Ideological positioning in news translation: A case study of evaluative resources in reports on China. Target, 2(27), 215-237.

Pérez-González, L. (2007). Appraising dubbed conversation: Systemic functional insights into the construal of naturalness in translated film dialogue. The Translator, 13(1), 1-38.

Qian, H. (2007). Investigating “unfaithful” translations via the appraisal theory: A case study on perfume ads translation. Journal of Foreign Languages, 6, 57-63.

Qian, H. (2012). Investigating translators’ positioning via the appraisal theory: A case study of the Q&A part of a speech delivered by the U.S. Vice President Cheney. Sino-US English Teaching, 9(12), 1775-1787.

Qian, H. (2017). Investigating “unfaithful” translations via the appraisal theory: A case study of public notices. Arab World English Journal for Translation & Literary Studies, 1(1), 187-200.

Reiss, K., & Vermeer, H. J. (1984). Grundlegung einer allgemeinen Translationstheorie. Tübingen: Niemeyer.

Rodrigues-Júnior, A. S., & Barbara, L. (2013). Linguistic constructions of appraisal in the novel the picture of Dorian Gray and its Brazilian translation and adaptations: An exploratory analysis. Revista Brasileira de Lingüística Aplicada, 13(1), 259-285.

Romagnuolo, A. (2014). (Re)interpreting human rights: The case of the “torture memos” and their translation into Italian. Humanities, ‌3, 313-339.

Rosa, A. A. (2013). The power of voice in translated fiction: Or, following a linguistic track in translation studies. In C. Way, S. Vandepitte, R. Meylaerts, & M. Bartłomiejczyk (Eds.), Tracks and treks in translation studies (pp. 223-245). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Schäffner, C. (2013). Evaluation in translation: Critical points of translator decision-making [Review]. Translation Studies, 6(3), 355-357.

Snell-Hornby, M. (2006). The turns of translation studies: New paradigms or shifting viewpoints? Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Souza, L. M. F. (2010). Interlingual reinstantiation: A model for a new and more comprehensive systemic functional perspective on translation. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina.

Souza, L. M. F. (2013). Interlingual reinstantiation—a new systemic functional perspective on translation. Text & Talk, 23(4-5), 575-594.

Souza, L. M. F. (2015). Evaluation in Translation: Critical points of translator decision-making [Review]. Cadernos de Tradução, 35(2), 441-455.

Steiner, E. (1998). A register-based translation evaluation: An advertisement as a case in point. Target, 10(2), 291-318.

Tebble, H. (2014). A genre-based approach to teaching dialogue interpreting: the medical consultation. The Interpreter and Translator Trainer, 8(3), 418-436.

Thompson, G. (2014). Affect and emotion, target-value mismatches, and Russian dolls: Refining the appraisal model. In G. Thompson & L. Alba-Juez (Eds.), Evaluation in context (pp. 47-66). Amsterdam & Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Thompson, G., & Hunston, S. (2000). Evaluation: An introduction. In S. Hunston & G. Thompson (Eds.), Evaluation in text: Authorial stance and the construction of discourse (pp. 1-27). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Thomson, E., & White, P. R. R. (Eds.). (2008). Communicating conflict: Multilingual case studies of the news media. London: Continuum.

Toury, G. (2012). Descriptive translation studies—And beyond. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Vandepitte, S., Vandenbusschea, L., & Algoeta, B. (2011). Travelling certainties: Darwin’s doubts and their Dutch translations. The Translator, 17(2), 275-299.

van Dijk, T. A. (2008). Discourse and context: A sociocognitive approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

White, P. R. R. (2012). Attitudinal meanings, translational commensurability and linguistic relativity. Revista Canaria ‌de Estudios Ingleses, 65, 147-159.

White, P. R. R. (2015). Appraisal theory. In K. Tracy (Ed.), International encyclopedia of language and social interaction (pp. 1-7). Hoboken, U.S.A: Wiley-Blackwell.

White, P. R. R. (2016). Constructing the “stranger” in Camus’ L’Etranger: Registerial and attitudinal variability under translation. The Journal of Translation Studies, 17(4), 75-106.

Zhang, M. (2002/2011). The language of appraisal and the translator’s attitudinal positioning. In J. Y. Zhang (Ed.), Functional linguistics and translation studies (pp. 180-190). Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.

Zhang, M. (2013). Stance and mediation in transediting news headlines as paratexts. Perspectives, 21(3), 396-411.