Document Type: Research Article
Kazan Federal University
Moskow Polytechnic University
The article discusses the specifics of the semantic structure of derivatives of the Russian language. The subject of the study was the idiom of the word-formation semantics of Russian nouns, which is particularly difficult in the linguodidactic description of the laws and mechanisms of Russian word formation. The purpose of the work is to characterize in a linguistic and methodological aspect derivative nouns, the semantics of which are not a simple sum of the values of the motivating basis and formant, but their interaction, as a result of which a new meaning is formed. The work states that in the Russian language derivative words with different types of word-formation semantics are distinguished. The lexical meanings of derivatives of nouns may contain additional semantic components, which are neither in the meanings of the generating stems, nor in the meanings of word-forming affixes. The ambiguity of affixes in the Russian language defines one of the widespread types of idiomatic semantics of a derived word. It is established that the realization of this or that other lexical meaning is not always predictable, the semantic increment cannot be automatically deduced from the word-building structure and semantic components of the word. The brightness and transparency of the internal form of such derivatives allows you to use them to name a variety of objects and phenomena. The semantics of motivating foundations, namely the fragments of reality behind them, provide Russian speakers with an understanding of the general meaning of the derivative, which is not always relevant for foreign phones. In the practice of teaching Russian as a foreign language, derivatives with an idiomatic type of semantics should be given special attention. Word-formation analysis at all stages of training forms the ability to observe, generalize and systematize lexical units according to their linguistic properties, to establish internal structural-semantic relationships and patterns.