Consciousness-Raising Through Written Corrective Feedback: The Case of Marked Third Person -s

Document Type : Research Article


Urmia University


This study examined and compared the effects of consciousness-raising
written corrective feedback in 2 newly-developed levels in terms of marked third
person -s acquisition. Nine elementary level intact classes, including 191 male
language learners within the age range of 11-14 at Iran Language Institute, were
taken as the participants. Relying on the participants’ placement test results,
previous term scores, and a pretest to measure their knowledge of marked third
person -s, 62 participants in 3 groups were selected to take part in this study. Then,
they were assigned into 2 experimental groups treated differently through (a) written
pronoun prompt and (b) visually enhanced reformulation for the first 20 min of 6
consecutive sessions over 1 month. No feedback was given to the control group.
Two parallel pretest and immediate posttest were used as the instruments. The
findings based on ANCOVA, and the t tests showed that the written- pronounprompt
group outperformed the visually enhanced reformulation one.