Constitutive Features of the Russian Political Discourse in Ecolinguistic Aspect

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of General and Russian Linguistics, Faculty of Philology, Pushkin State Russian Language Institute, Moscow, Russia.

2 Department of the Russian Language, Faculty of Linguistics, Bauman Moscow State Technical University, Moscow, Russia.


The article offers a comparative description of typological mechanisms used in political communicative practice and methods of verbal explication of its axiological and symbolic constituents determining universal mental features of individual/collective consciousness. The research position based on a systemic multilevel analysis of the component structure of discourse facilitates the identification and characterization of linguistic and sociocultural dominants of political interaction organized by a certain language system, with semiotic and literary genre specifics of legitimate communicative acts taken into account.
The methodological concept, aimed at modeling institutional interactions in the context of ecological compatibility/toxicity of the transmission of ethno-sociocultural components, allowed the authors to characterize the ways and mechanisms of representation and transformation of the sign structure of political communication and determine the algorithms of verbal and discursive behavior. The combination of methods applied in discourse analysis, linguistic and cognitive projection, linguistic and cultural interpretations and functional-pragmatic consideration of text units made it possible to identify and qualify linguistic and semiotic elements of legitimate/illegitimate political practices and to carry out ecolinguistic typology of basic linguistic components of political communication.
The results of the study indicate a special communicative range of Russian political discourse, with language diffusion/re-contextualization, persuasive techniques, semiotic consolidation of institutional reversion, various verbal indicators of social asymmetry (from metaphorization, euphemization, nominalization to the tactics of disintegration and manipulation) as key markers. They not only actualize linguistic and cultural resources of ideologically charged discursive practices, but also significantly expand the area of possible communication risks. Modern political logosphere as a part of the ecosystem, synergetically included in all spheres of human communication, forms new contextual concepts, assessment stereotypes, verbal behavior norms (often restricting norms) for all subjects included in it and communicative traditions of the universe as a whole.