EFL Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) and Ecological Agency in Responding to the Differentiated Learning Policy in Indonesia

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia

2 English Language Education Study Program, Universitas Sanata Dharma, Yogyakarta, Indonesia; Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia

3 English Language Education Study Program, Universitas Katolik Widya Mandira, Kupang, Indonesia; Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia

4 English Literature Study Program, Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Malang, Indonesia; Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia

5 Communication Science Department, Universitas Muhammadiyah Ponorogo, Ponorogo, Indonesia; Department of English, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia


This study aimed to examine the relationship between EFL teachers' technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) and ecological agency in responding to the differentiated learning policy in Indonesian high schools. A quantitative research design was employed, using a survey of EFL teachers in Indonesian high schools. A questionnaire gauging EFL teachers' TPK, ecological agency, and differentiated instruction practice was distributed online to 83 teacher participants. Results showed that the teachers possessed high levels of TPK, ecological agency, and differentiated learning implementation. Furthermore, TPK and ecological agency were strongly correlated with differentiated learning implementation, with teachers' ecological agency having a more significant impact on promoting differentiated instruction. Findings suggest that EFL teachers in Indonesia need to continue improving their professional development to enhance the quality of the implementation of differentiated learning in EFL teaching and learning.


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