English as a Foreign Language Preservice Teachers’ Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Quantitative Comparative Study

Document Type : Research Article


1 Department of English Language and Literature, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Department of English Philology, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain


Technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) is a set of knowledge domains that can help maximize teachers’ successful technology use in education. Recent directions in educational technology research have moved towards investigating teachers’ TPACK in content-specific applications. This study initially intended to compare and contrast English as a foreign language (EFL) preservice teachers’ (PSTs’) TPACK perceptions in the contexts of Iran and Oman. It also sought to examine if there was a gender gap in EFL PSTs’ TPACK perceptions in these contexts. A quantitative comparative research design was used to collect the data via online questionnaires from EFL PSTs in Iran and Oman. Results showed that EFL PSTs generally had high perceptions of their TPACK; however, the Iranian EFL PSTs’ TPACK perceptions were significantly higher than those of the Omani EFL PSTs in all subdomains of TPACK. The study also reported that there were no significant differences between genders in Oman, Iran, and collectively all the participants regardless of their nationality. Findings provide practical pedagogical implications for future EFL PSTs, EFL PST educators, EFL curriculum reformers, and policymakers in considering context-sensitive decisions such as needs-customized courses and activities with preevaluation of tools and abilities entailed.


Al-Abdullatif, A. M. (2019). Auditing the TPACK confidence of preservice teachers: The case of Saudi Arabia. Education and Information Technologies, 24(6), 3393-3413.
Alharbi, A. A. M. (2020). The degree of teaching knowledge for Saudi EFL Teachers: An investigation for Madinah EFL teachers' perceptions regarding TPACK Framework. English Language Teaching, 13(10), 99-110.
Angeli, C., & Valanides, N. (2009). Epistemological and methodological issues for the conceptualization, development, and assessment of ICTnt of ICTt of ICTof ICTg TPACK Framework. Computers & Education, 52(1), 154-168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2008.07.006
Angeli, C., Valanides, N., & Christodoulou, A. (2016). Theoretical considerations of technological pedagogical content knowledge. In M. Herring, M. J. Koehler, & P. Mishra (Eds.), Handbook of technological pedagogical content knowledge (pp. 21-42). Routledge. 
Atar, C., Aydın, S., & Bağcı, H. (2019). An investigation of preservice English teachers’ level of techno-pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 15(3), 794-805.
Baser, D., Kopcha, T. J., & Ozden, M. Y. (2016). Developing a technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) assessment for preservice teachers learning to teach English as a foreign language. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 29(4), 749-764. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2015.1047456
Bennet, S., & Oliver, M. (2011). Talking back to theory: The missed opportunities in learning technology research. Research in Language Learning Technology, 19(3), 179-189.
Bostancıoğlu, A., & Handley, Z. (2018). Developing and validating a questionnaire for evaluating the EFL ‘Total PACKage’: Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) for English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(5-6), 572-598. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2017.1422524
Demirtaş, B., & Mumcu, F. (2021). Preservice teachers’ perceptions of ICT and TPACK Competencies. Acta Educationis Generalis, 11(2), 60-82.
Dornëy, Z., & Csizér, K. (2012). How to design and analyze surveys in second language acquisition research. In A. Mackey & S. Gass (Eds.), Research methods in second language acquisition research: A practical guide (pp. 74-94). John Wiley & Sons.
Ekrem, S., & Recep, C. (2014). Examining preservice EFL teachers' TPACK competencies in Turkey. Journal of Educators Online, 11(2). https://doi.org/10.9743/JEO.2014.2.2
Ersanli, C. Y. (2016). Improving technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) of preservice English language teachers. International Education Studies9(5), 18-27.
İşler, C., & Yıldırım, Ö. (2018). Perceptions of Turkish preservice EFL teachers on their technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Education and Future, 13, 145-160.
Jang, S. J., & Tsai, M.-F. (2013). Exploring the TPACK of Taiwanese secondary school science teachers using a new contextualized TPACK model. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology29(4), 566-580. https://doi.org/10.14742/ajet.282
Johnson, J. (2021, September 10). Worldwide digital population as of January 2021. https://www.statista.com/statistics/617136/digital-population-worldwide/
Koh, J. H. L., Chai, C. S., & Tsai, C. C. (2010). Examining the technological pedagogical content knowledge of Singapore pre‐service teachers with a large‐scale survey. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 26(6), 563-573.
Li, L. (2018) Integrating technology in ESP: Pedagogical principles and practice. In R. Muñoz-Luna & L. Taillefer (Eds.), Integrating information and communication technologies in English for specific purposes. Springer.
Mashhadi, A., Al Suraifi, A., & Fahad, A. K. (2022). Iraqi EFL learners’ preferences and readiness for mobile learning in higher education during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 14(30), 351-365.
Mashhadi, A., Kassim Kadhum, A., & Gooniband Shooshtari, Z. (2023). Exploring technological pedagogical content knowledge among Iraqi high school English teachers: A comparative study during the COVID-19 pandemic. Iranian Journal of Applied Language Studies, 15(1), 141-154.
Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017-1054.
Mishra, P., Koehler, M. J., & Kereluik, K. (2009). Looking back to the future of educational technology. TechTrends, 53(5), 49.
Monjezi, M., Mashhadi, A., & Maniati, M. (2021). COVID-19: Is it time you made the CALL. Computer Assisted Language Learning Electronic Journal, 22(2), 56-72.
Nazari N., Nafissi, Z., Estaji, M. & Marandi S. (2019) Evaluating novice and experienced EFL teachers’ perceived TPACK for their professional development, Cogent Education, 6(1) 1-26. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2019.1632010
North, A. S., & Noyes, J. M. (2002). Gender influences on children’s computer attitudes and cognitions. Computers in Human Behavior18(2), 135-150.
Passey, D. (2019). Technology‐enhanced learning: Rethinking the term, the concept and its theoretical background. British Journal of Educational Technology50(3), 972-986.
Richards, J. C. (2017). Curriculum development in language teaching. Cambridge University Press.
Rosenberg, J., & Koehler, M. J. (2015). Context and teaching with technology in the in the digital age. In M. L. Niess & H. Gillow-Wiles (Eds.), Handbook of research in the digital age (pp. 456-457). Hershey: IGI Global.
Sarıçoban, A., Tosuncuoğlu, İ., & Kırmızı, Ö. (2019). A technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) assessment of preservice EFL teachers learning to teach English as a foreign language, Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 15(3), 1122-1138.
Shulman, L. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review57(1), 1-23.
Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher15(2), 4-14.
Thompson, A. D., & Mishra, P. (2007). Breaking news: TPCK becomes TPACK! Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 24(2), 38-64.
Tondeur, J., Scherer, R., Siddiq, F., & Baran, E. (2017). A comprehensive investigation of TPACK within preservice teachers’ ICT profiles: Mind the gap! Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 33(3), 20-32.
Tondeur, J., van Braak, J., Siddiq, F., & Scherer, R. (2016). Time for a new approach to prepare future teachers for educational technology use: Its meaning and measurement. Computers & Education, 94, 134-150
Tseng, J. J. (2018). Exploring TPACK-SLA interface: Insights from the computer-enhanced classroom. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 31(4), 390-412.
Tseng, J. J., Chai, C. S., Tan, L., & Park, M. (2020). A critical review of research on technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) in language teaching. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 33, 1-24. https://doi.org/10.1080/09588221.2020.1868531
Turgut, Y. (2017). Tracing preservice English language teachers’ perceived TPACK in sophomore, junior, and senior levels. Cogent Education, 4(1), 1-20. https://doi.org/10.1080/2331186X.2017.1368612
Wang W., Schmidt, D. & Jin, Y. (2018) Preservice teachers' TPACK development: A review of literature. Journal of Digital Learning in Teacher Education, 34(4), 234-258. https://doi.org/10.1080/21532974.2018.1498039
White, D. S., & Le Cornu, A. (2011). Visitors and residents: A new typology for online engagement. First Monday, 16(9). https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v16i9.3171