Introduction: Teaching Languages in Times of Social and Technological Change and Divide



1 UNESCO Chair; Institute of Education, University of Wolverhampton, Wolverhampton, UK;

2 Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED), Madrid, Spain

3 Department of English Studies, University of Almería, Spain

4 Department of English Language and Literature, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran



This journal issue captures a unique time, a time between the lingering aftermath of a global pandemic and the increasing power and presence of artificial intelligence. It does of course however focus specifically on language learning but against an ever-changing geo-political background, a background in which language and technology are now some of the most powerful but unacknowledged factors. These all profoundly affect the mechanics of teaching and learning on the one hand and the social, political, and economic structures of our societies on the other, and of course the relationships between them.